Portsmouth-based author, publisher and S&C regular, Matt Wingett, argues that last week’s closure of Blackwell’s bookshop bears the mark of a wider malady: the corporatisation of art, culture and higher education in our time.
Sadly, after much imploring, petitioning and dissent among university and townsfolk alike, Blackwell’s University Bookshop, Portsmouth has closed down.
The shop has been the most extraordinary hub, with writers launching numerous books here, academics and townsfolk alike mingling and sharing ideas, students supported and helped by an extremely dedicated staff and numerous authors coming to give talks about their work. It has been a place of meetings and information exchange, and that increasingly rare thing: an informal face-to-face meeting place where ideas can form and grow in discussion, where friendships and projects have begun. It has seen readings, art, music – and has been one of the major hubs of culture in the town for a fiercely loyal and surprisingly large group.
When I first heard that it was threatened with closure, I started a petition on 38 Degrees imploring the University of Portsmouth and Blackwell UK to think again. It got over a thousand signatures in one weekend. This bookshop was not only loved. It was needed.
As a casualty of the changing nature of information in the digital age, the demise of Blackwell’s Portsmouth can be seen in one light as a natural, even inevitable development. That said, its corporate owners appear to have lacked the understanding and imagination to really make the shop work and flourish, given its unique role in the local writing scene.
Moreover, the shop’s closure points to a broader problem: the disregard of large business entities for local communities. In its headlong rush to milk even more money from the venue, the University of Portsmouth has chosen to ignore the value Blackwell’s added to its own reputation and the excellent service it provided its students. That will be to the University’s lasting shame.
So what really drove the closure of the bookshop?
The reality is that the idea of university died a death in Britain a generation ago. At least, the sort of institution I took my degree at in the early 1990s is dead. Even then, the idea of university was in the process of change, but there was still, in the slightly rarefied atmosphere of the philosophy department at York University where I studied, a sense of the value of learning a subject beyond its retail price conceived as a commodity. Back then, universities were, in fact, concerned with something far more important: culture.
But the idea of the university as the custodian of culture is now defunct. And, if you are of the mind that art and culture are byproducts of a successful economy, then you will take the accountant’s view that Blackwell’s University Bookshop’s passing is the natural function of economic Darwinism.
If, however, you place a value on culture beyond that of numbers in a bank account, then the demise of Blackwell’s is a belated weathercock for the way the wind has been blowing for the last thirty years.
Why, then, does this matter so much to me? Besides the personal support and purpose I found in the shop, it also strikes me that shutting a bookshop in a town with high levels of illiteracy is the wrong way to go. Now, only one retail bookshop is left in a city of 200,000 souls, and that is a generalist shop on Commercial Road that piles them high and sells the bestsellers cheap. That is one reason.
But I am also struck by an irony. Thanks to the work of John Pounds, a figure from the 1830s now largely forgotten, the right to a free education was born in Portsmouth. Pounds believed that education is for everyone, including the poorest – and especially those who could not pay for it. That was a noble cause which eventually spread to the offering of grants for all who made the grade, so they too could enjoy an elite education no matter what their personal finances. But, the decision to remove degree level grants has made education increasingly inaccessible and has enslaved a whole generation in massive debt; the result is that the inevitable logic of economics has led to education being at the vanguard of cultural decline. From a social good, education and culture have been demoted to, simply, goods.
It used to be the case that education and culture were regarded as something more broadly useful to society than being retailed as employability skills, important though they are. It was held that the very nature of what it is to be human could be broadened and made richer through an education that transmitted the values inherent to an enlightened culture, those of understanding others, of creative endeavour, of articulate questioning and challenging of orthodoxy. That used to be the role of the university. There was also a general belief that having people educated in this broader sense spread out as a good to society generally. This belief made the criteria for political and social decisions include aspects of life other than those dictated by basic economics. This view of education was the symptom of a holistic view of society and culture.
Now, however, pure right-wing economics are our master.
Some will argue that art and culture are byproducts of civilisation – that our ancient forebears in the spare time between hunter-gathering needed something to do with their lives and so created art to while away their hours. Those people imagine that our ancestors, like us, came back from a hard day’s hunting in the savannah and, in the absence of a flatscreen television, amused themselves by gawping at the Lascaux cave paintings – square-eyeing away the winter evenings for 10,000 years until their successors could eventually come up with Netflix.
This reductionist view of culture sees art and artistic endeavour as non-essential. It is the epiphenomenon of commerce. Artists and writers and poets and creators exist because they are supported by the real activity of life, which is all hard facts, and especially hard coin.
It is not a view I share. It seems obvious to me that the last thirty years has seen a general degradation of culture spearheaded by universities such as the one in Portsmouth. We are slowly going backward. We are devolving.
There’s no doubt that hunting and gathering enabled early humans to work in co-operative groups; that it led to a particular type of social cohesion in the form of tribes; that it led to the necessity of building an understanding of the world around them – nor that all these are the foundations of modern life. No doubt, all these social behaviours are consequences of the activity that provided ancient humans with food and fire and safety – activities that would later be labelled economic.
But the ability to progress did not come from the act of hunting alone. Before the act of hunting in groups, someone had the idea that humans could work together, could find a way to trap an animal, could find food by hunting in packs. Every advance in human life is the result of an act of imagination, every advance comes from the visualisation and the discussion of ideas and possibilities. Yes, it is true that groups of creatures other than humans hunt in unison and do not paint cave walls or discuss Sartre over coffee, but none of those animals has the imagination to shape a flint or attach it to a spear, nor possess all the fine gradations and nuances in thinking and language that humans have, that have led to our rise over millennia. Ideas were born and passed from one generation to the next by culture and the spaces in which culture is transmitted, be they caves, temples – or bookshops.
That is why the sacred spaces of ancient cultures are covered in paintings, spells and words. That is why ancient civilisations such as the Babylonians sculpted creatures that were impossible in the real world, but which stepped straight from the imagination. It was not simple superstition expressed in the statues of ancient gods, it was not that artists and thinkers created fancies while the real business of the world continued on despite them. Statues of ancient Gods and the rituals that surrounded them were central to the running of society, to civilisation’s understanding of the world that was disseminated through temple rituals. Culture and the transmission of culture is humanity at its greatest. It has precedence over narrow economics.
And so we come back to Blackwell’s, Portsmouth.
There are arguments that the days of the book are long past. That with the coming of digitisation and with the ability of students to access material online, there is little need to produce books. Indeed, books are a terrible waste of resources, and the world is a greener place without all that wood pulp being converted. Think of the environment, we are enjoined. Think of the planet.
But this is to miss the point of the rituals that occurred in this bookshop. Book launches, author talks, informal seminars, discussions, sharing, recommendations are more than stock-in-trade. Bookshops are not only purveyors of books, at least the good ones like Blackwell’s in Portsmouth, aren’t. That goodwill could have been monetised, but the University wanted the site of the bookshop for another project. A British university didn’t see the value in keeping its only functioning bookshop open. Let that thought sink in a while. Because it really is as simple as that.
Portsmouth’s Blackwell’s was a space where ideas could be disseminated, beyond the economics-driven imperative of university finances. It drew people to it that were not connected to the university, and they met with students and lecturers and ideas were shared. Culture happened – spontaneously. Blackwell’s, Portsmouth, was, in fact, a means of the transmission of culture just as the sacred spaces once were to our forebears. It was in its modest, modern way, a temple to civilisation.
Blackwell’s wasn’t only about commerce. It was about humanity in a wider sense. It was about standing up to the cost-benefit analysis view of life and saying ‘what we do, what we think, is vital because it is human, despite you’ in the face of the machinery of bean-counting that pays lip service to such ideas, but sacrifices them to its own calculating god, Mammon.
My call, now, is that in its passing, we continue the rites enacted at Blackwell’s Portsmouth, and work to preserve culture. That we do so, despite the decisions of businesses like Blackwell UK, and the value-free institution that is the University of Portsmouth.
This article first appeared on Matt’s blog here.
Photography by Matt Wingett.